This info was taken from Why Can’t I Get Better?

I do not advocate the overuse of antibiotics but I thought I should provide the info for those who feel that antibiotics are necessary.

Horowitz on CO-INFECTIONS

A glance at:

  1. Ehrlichia and Anaplasma
  2. Bartonella henselae aka cat scratch fever
  3. Mycoplasma
  4. Rickettsial infections
  5. Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever: Borrelia Hermsii and Borrelia miyamotoi
  6. Tick Paralysis
  7. Tularemia
  8. Brucellosis
  9. Babesia
  10. Viral infections

Ehrlichia and Anaplasias

  • Ehrlichiosis comes in many forms including human sennetsu ehrlichiosis (HSE), human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME), human ewingii ehrlichiosis Wisconsin-Minnesota (HWME).
  • Symptoms include fever, headaches, flu, muscle pain, fatigue.
  • Blood lab results with these infections: low white cell count, low platelet counts, elevated AST and ALT.
  • Treat with tetracycline unless very young.

Bartonella henselae, a.k.a., cat scratch fever

  • Several species including Bartonella Quintana caused by human lice, and Bartonella bacilliformis caused by sand flies.
  • Presents as raised bumps on the skin that turn into blisters in one to two weeks.
  • Causes lymph swelling and severe neurological problems like seizures, pharyngeal crescents (red-crescent-shaped lesions in the back of throat), foot pain, and a positive VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor).
  • Can be transmitted to a fetus.
  • Treat with tetracyclines, macrolides, IV cephalosporins and quinolone.

Mycoplasma

  • An intracellular infection, it lives in host cells.
  • Includes Mycoplasma fermentans, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Mycoplasma genitalium.
  • Diagnose with Immunofluorescent Antibodies (IFA) and Serial PCRs to check for different species.
  • Mycoplasmas interact with B-lymphocytes, immune cells that secrete antibodies in response to infections. This promotes autoimmune rheumatoid reactions.
  • Mycoplasmas increase cytokines Il-1, Il-2 and Il-6.
  • Treat with macrolides, tetracyclines, or quinolones, but mycoplasma is persistent post-antibiotic treatment.
  • Those who test positive for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DR 4 on blood tests have severe autoimmune reactions when they have Mycoplasma.

Rickettsial infections

  • An intracellular infection, it lives in host cells, but can also survive outside host cells for some time.
  • The most common forms are Rocky Mountain spotted fever and Q fever.
  • Can look like hepatitis, pneumonia, myelitis or Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS).
  • It can infect the heart valves (chronic endocarditis) one to twenty years after exposure.
  • It can be transmitted by insects, animals, milk, and meat products.
  • Diagnose using phase I and phase II titers and comparing the ratios. If phase I is higher, infection is acute. If phase II is high, infection is chronic.
  • Treat with several years of doxycycline and quinolone, or doxycycline and rifampin with Plaquenil to alkalize the intracellular compartment.

Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever: Borrelia Hermsii and Borrelia miyamotoi

  • Causes fevers, sweats, muscle pain, vomiting, light sensitivity, confusion, facial nerve palsy, peripheral neuropathy and metal disturbances.
  • B. Hermsii rearranges its DNA to create different proteins to allow it to go unnoticed in the immune system.
  • It can enlarge the organs, cause liver congestion, and cause disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), low blood pressure and myocarditis.
  • Diagnose by a Wright-Giemsa stain, antibody titers by EIA and IFA, Western immunoblots, culture, monoclonal antibodies and PCRs.
  • Treat with IV Rocephin.

Tick Paralysis

  • Causes weakness and lack of muscular coordination, with paralysis starting from top to bottom. This is due to the neurotoxins released by the ticks.
  • Plasmapheresis therapy (removing plasma from the blood and returning it to the blood) does not work for tick paralysis.
  • Treat by removing the tick.

Tularemia

  • An intracellular bacteria, also called Francisella tularensis.
  • Causes fevers, enlarged lymph nodes, chills, body aches, sore throat, headache, and typhoid-like and pneumonia-like symptoms.
  • Treat with Plaquenil, Mepron, Zithromax, doxy, rifampin, and intramuscular (IM) bicillin and Rocephin injections.

Brucellosis

  • An intracellular bacteria caused by Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, Brucella suis, and Brucella canis.
  • Over 90 percent of patients will experience chills, sweats, enlarged liver and spleen, fever, weight loss and weakness.
  • Causes pulmonary complications, infects the bones, and inflames the cornea.
  • Treat like tularemia, with gentamicin, tetracyclines, streptomycin, and rifampin.
  • Treat for at least 6 weeks.

So for intracellular bacteria:

  • Plaquenil
  • Doxy
  • Rifampin
  • Nystatin
  • Zithromax
  • Levaquin
  • Septra
  • Factive

Babesia

  • A parasite, there are over 100 species of Babesia known collectively as piroplasms.
  • It changes its DNA to hide and binds to cells to avoid immune recognition.
  • Causes fatigue, fever, chills, sweats, hemolytic anemia due to red blood cells breaking down, jaundice, low platelet count, congestive heart failure and renal failure.
  • Diagnose with a Babesia smear (Giemsa stain), Babesia PCR test, or Babesia titer (IFA). Diagnostics are ineffective.
  • Treat with anti-malarials such as quinine and Artemisia.
  • Treat with antibiotic medications such as Mepron, doxy, Plaquenil, clindamycin or Zithromax. Rotate between Cleocin with a macrolide antibiotic, and Malarone with Mepron.

Viral infections

  • Common ones include Epstein-Barr, Human herpes virus (HHV-6), Cytomegalovirus and West Nile virus.
  • Dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, virus, and Phlebovirus to name a few more.
  • Common anti-viral drugs don’t have much effect.
  • Nutritional supplements are better: Byron White Formulas, like A-EB/h6, colostrum, olive leaf, and mushrooms.
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